La Premier League termina la primera mitad de la fase de grupos de la Champions League invicta, ¿qué significa?

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El rendimiento de la Premier League en la Liga de Campeones ha sido una gran historia en los últimos años, por todas las razones equivocadas.

Este año eso está cambiando.

Solo está en la mitad de la fase de grupos, pero los participantes de la Premier League están invictos en 15 partidos en la competencia 2017-18, camisetas de futbol originales baratas,y todos se sientan encima de sus respectivos grupos.

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Manchester City, Manchester United, Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur y Liverpool se han combinado para ganar 11 partidos y empatar cuatro, acumulando 37 de los 45 puntos disponibles hasta el momento.

También ha habido resultados de firma. Chelsea ganó 2-1 en el Atlético de Madrid. Manchester City acaba de terminar el inicio perfecto de Napoli el martes. Los Spurs han vencido al Borussia Dortmund y han ganado un empate en el Bernabéu contra el Real Madrid.

United está limpiando los relojes de un grupo menor como se espera, y mientras que el Liverpool ha sido el único decepcionante equipo de la Premier League hasta el momento, los Rojos todavía han empatado al Sevilla y han marcado 7-0 a Maribor para la victoria más decisiva de la competencia.

Liverpool está empatado en la cima de su grupo con el Spartak de Moscú, mientras que los Spurs y el Real Madrid comparten la ventaja en la cima de su grupo. Los otros tres lados ingleses están en primer lugar por sí mismos.

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Spreading Western culture throughout the world and opposing Islamic fundamentalism, environmentalism, communism, socialism, fascism and multiculturalism

About Western Culture Global

Fast Facts

  • Who we are: The world’s first and only organization explicitly dedicated to promoting Western culture. We are an independent non-governmental organization that focuses primarily on educational efforts. We rely completely on private donations and will soon pursue 501(c)(3) non-profit organization status.
  • Why we exist: To spread the values and ideals of Western culture throughout the world.
  • What we do: Our current projects include an internationally promoted Knowledge Center and Top 100 Western Culture Heroes. Future projects include translations, book publishing, an awards program, media outreach and more.
  • Where we are: Dallas, Texas—USA
  • When we started: September 2006

Western culture is under attack throughout the world.

Islamic totalitarians spread anti-Western propaganda to every area of the globe—with the ultimate goal of creating a brutal, worldwide religious dictatorship. If this were not serious enough, others also work globally to batter Western culture, including multiculturalists, leftists, communists, socialists, dictators and many environmentalists.

To counter these grave threats, Western Culture Global believes that a good offense is the best defense.

Our mission, as a result, is to spread the ideals and values of Western culture throughout the world. In areas of the world where Western culture is currently scorned, we seek to make it admired and pursued. Where it is already significantly embraced, we seek to strengthen this embrace.

As our Knowledge Center makes clear, Western culture is of profound importance to human life. And for Western culture to continue existing in the world, it must be boldly fought for. It must not be taken for granted as the ancient Romans took it for granted—and then lost it. Before their very eyes, they witnessed what they thought was impossible: the demise of much of the civilized world and the inauguration of 1,000 years of darkness.

Even though Western culture again today faces a similar fate, it is still poised to fulfill its rightful place as humanity’s culture and spread firmly throughout the world, as it may already be starting to do. In fact, this is a reason why its enemies are so desperate to destroy it. They know that if they fail to do so, Western culture’s rays of enlightenment may soon forever destroy their nonsense.

Whether they or Western culture ultimately succeeds in this historic conflict is probably entirely up to those living right now. Please do what you can to ensure that Western culture is triumphant.

Western Culture Global — projects designed to counter Islamic totalitarianism, multiculturalism, leftists, environmentalism

Our Projects

Current Projects

  • Knowledge Center – We maintain, improve and continue to build a Knowledge Center about Western culture on our website. It demonstrates the nature and importance of Western culture, a subject of profound significance that the great majority of the world’s people are ignorant or confused about.

    We drive visitors to the Knowledge Center by developing relationships with Western culture supporters and sympathizers around the world who help in promoting our website, both online and offline.

  • Top 100 Heroes of Western Culture – We maintain a list of and biographies for individuals who have most contributed to Western culture and its development.

Future Projects

  • Translations – We are currently gathering information on whether translating our website and Knowledge Center, including books in the Online Library, into the world’s major languages is a good investment. (English is increasingly becoming a global language.) If we determine that it is, we will have dedicated websites for the different languages.

  • Book Publishing – We plan to publish several books about Western culture. The first book that we publish will be a Western culture primer. It will contain an overview of the nature and importance of Western culture as well as an introduction to authors and thinkers of Western culture and their works. It will likely be necessary for us to subsidize the publication and international promotion of this book and others.

  • Media Outreach – We promote the ideals and values of Western culture through the news media. We will produce op-eds, press releases and letters to the editor for newspapers, magazines and websites worldwide.

  • Awards – We plan to annually honor individuals from around the world who champion Western culture.

  • International Offices – To improve our effectiveness, we plan to have at least one office on each inhabited continent of the world.

Why Our Projects Are Important 

Even just a moderate success for our projects is an important step toward achieving the following:

Global Peace 
Western ideals and values (specifically reason and the recognition of rights) discourage conflict and the use of force while encouraging peace and goodwill among people and nations. As a result, the threat of significant violence or war—including terrorism—would be virtually eliminated upon even a moderate acceptance of Western culture throughout all of the world.

Global Prosperity 
Western ideals and values can deeply enrich the spirit of every person on earth. They are the products of humanity at its best and most enlightened. They can fulfill the need that everyone has for meaningful and viable ideals and values.

Western culture can also be enriching materially. The global spread of Western culture (specifically capitalism) is capable of not just eliminating the deadly poverty and spirit-breaking stagnation that dominate too much of the world; it can also take humanity’s standard of living and enjoyment of life to unprecedented, spectacular heights.

Western Culture Top 100 Heroes

Western Culture Global Presents 

The Top 100 Heroes of Western Culture

These individuals have most contributed to replacing ignorance withknowledge, savagery with civilization, disease with health, tyranny with liberty, poverty with abundance, and despair with happiness.

Introduction and Purpose

A list of and biographies for the top 100 heroes of Western culture was developed by Western Culture Global for five main reasons:

1. No such compilation already exists. This stems largely from the fact that most people the world over are ignorant of or confused about what Western culture is, its nature and characteristics. As a result, people have difficulty identifying those individuals of history who are most responsible for Western culture and its development.

2. Having such a compilation of heroes is critical for Western culture to sustain itself and develop. To know who Western culture’s heroes are and precisely why such individuals are worthy of admiration is indispensable to understanding and valuing the culture.

3. Most biographies available elsewhere on these individuals generally fail to coherently identify the true nature and scope of their accomplishments and enduring impact on humanity. The biographies here will at least attempt to give full justice to these individuals.

4. Most biographies available elsewhere provide much detailed information about each individual. Unfortunately, such a detailed biography makes identifying or retaining the essence of the person’s accomplishment(s) difficult or even impossible. Our biographies by contrast name only the essentials.

5. We seek to apply, based on our best judgment, Ayn Rand’s philosophy of Objectivismto the interpretation of history, specifically to Western historical figures, their ideas and actions.

Top 100 Western Culture Heroes — by Numerical Order

Top 100 Western Culture Heroes — by Century

Top 100 Western Culture Heroes — by Category

What is Western culture? Is Western culture better and superior and best? Resource and library for Western culture

Western culture is likely the world’s most controversial subject.

Some say that it is great, enlightened and worth vigorously fighting for. Others say that it is harmful, depraved and should be destroyed. And many believe that the truth lies between these two views.

Which view is correct and why? And, more importantly, what exactly is Western culture?This Knowledge Center is designed to answer these and related questions.

You are encouraged to start with “What is Western Culture?” and continue from there.

Capitalism and its definition, characteristics, strengths, history and benefits. Western culture and non Western culture and free enterprise, market economy, market economies

Since Western culture recognizes rights and their foundation, it is capitalistic. This is because capitalism develops insofar as individuals are free to exercise their rights and choose to exercise them.[1]

Capitalism is a social system based on the recognition of rights, in which all property is privately owned. It is characterized by the pursuit of material self-interest and rests on a foundation of reason.

It is further characterized by saving and capital accumulation, exchange and money, the profit motive, the freedoms of economic competition and economic inequality, the price system, economic progress and a harmony of the material self-interests of all the individuals who participate in it.[2]

Pre-Capitalism — Death Never Far 
In Western Europe, before the development of capitalism in the late 1700s, life for the vast majority of Western Europeans was similar to life for everyone in the world at the time. Merely surviving was an immense struggle, and, on average, people were not expected to live beyond the age of 30.[3]

Famine in Western Europe was common, as was the mass death, infanticide and cannibalism that accompanied it.

Poverty was so severe that the following were considered luxuries usually available only to the rich: shoes, clothes without holes, adequate warmth, candles for light, eating utensils, toys, bathing more than once a month, healthcare, an education.

Work, assuming one could find it, usually consisted of dangerous, unrelenting and exhausting manual labor. And preparing a simple meal or performing routine household chores took precious hours. Sleeping four or more adults in one bed was common, as was all-pervading filth, including raw sewage running through the streets. Disease was everywhere, an inescapable trademark of this era.

The children of this pre-capitalism world were hit hardest. The mortality rate for infants under one year was at least 30%, and the rate for all children from birth to 19 years was at least 50%. And surviving children as young as five often needed to work to help ensure that their families did not become gravely impoverished.[4]

Capitalism The Savior
Capitalism ended this nightmare for Western Europeans. In a historical blink of an eye, it virtually wiped out poverty, countless diseases, hunger, child mortality, human misery and the need for child labor — and ushered in, for hundreds of millions of people, unprecedented levels of wealth, health, and abundance. Life expectancy in Western Europe, as a result, more than doubled to at least the age of 75.

Capitalism also emerged in the United States in the 1800s as well as other nations settled by Western Europeans—resulting in similar life-sustaining and life-enriching benefits. In the mid-20th century, capitalism spread to Asia, immensely improving life in many nations, such as Japan and South Korea. And, currently, capitalism is lifting millions from poverty in other parts of Asia, including India and China.

Capitalism = Higher Life Expectancy
Today, capitalism has at least some presence in nearly all nations of the world. It does not currently exist (and has never existed) anywhere in a full, perfect, and complete form. Wherever capitalism exists, it is mixed with statism. Statism is a social system based on the violation of individual rights; statism includes communist, socialist, fascist, simple dictatorship and “welfare” type systems.

The more a nation embraces capitalism, as opposed to statism, the more progress it achieves. One need only look at life expectancies around the world to see that this is true.[5]

Current life expectancy in nations where capitalism has significant presence (abbreviated list)
82 – Australia
78 – United States
82 – Japan
81 – Israel
80 – Italy

Current life expectancy in nations where capitalism has only modest presence (abbreviated list)
71 – Philippines
66 – Russia
70 – Honduras
65 – Pakistan
59 – Senegal

Current life expectancy in nations where capitalism has little or no presence (abbreviated list)
30 – Haiti
47 – Nigeria
45 – Afghanistan
40 – Zimbabwe
64 – North Korea

Bastion of Benevolence 
The engine behind capitalism’s ability to generate economic progress and the longer life expectancies that result is the division of labor and individual rights. Individual rights sanction each person to pursue his or her own self-interest and benefit—as long as he or she respects the rights of others. 

This means that, under capitalism, a person can only obtain the cooperation of others voluntarily through trade, not through force. In other words, a person under capitalism, according to economist George Reisman:

“…must show [others] how cooperation with him is to their self-interest as well as his own and, indeed, is more to their self-interest than pursuing any of the other alternatives that are open to them. To find customers or workers and suppliers, he must show how dealing with him benefits them as well as him, and benefits them more than buying from others or selling to others.”[6]

For example, Henry Ford did not force people at gunpoint to buy his Model T. He attained customers, and thus benefited himself, because his automobile appealed to the self-interest of consumers since it was superior to other options open to them, such as the horse and carriage. Voluntary exchange for mutual benefit, which this is but one example of, is institutionalized under capitalism—resulting in continuous improvement of people’s well-being and standard of living.

Capitalism, then, is humanity’s bastion of benevolence: Under capitalism, there is only a harmony of rational self-interests because a person is only able to benefit himself by showing that he can benefit others.

Protects Link Between Reason and Survival 
More fundamentally, capitalism leads to economic progress because it is based, not on faith or fantasy, but on reality and facts—specifically the objective requirements of proper human survival. 

Capitalism recognizes that virtually everything that human life requires is ultimately a product of human reason. A Western, capitalist society protects this link between survival and reason by upholding one’s freedom to act upon one’s own rational judgment (in the pursuit of one’s own self-interest).[7]

Therefore, it’s no wonder that the countless achievements that make human life secure and enjoyable were created under capitalism, such as air travel, refrigeration, radio, television, nuclear power, medical cures, indoor plumbing, the motion picture, the telephone, the light bulb, the computer, the Internet and the automobile.

And it’s no wonder that life under capitalism becomes increasingly secure and enjoyable. When human reason is free to operate, it is limitless in its ability to solve problems of human survival and to continuously improve the quality and longevity of human life.

The development and spread of capitalism raised the expectation of life at birth in the world from roughly 26 years in 1820 to 66 years in 2000, the greatest gain by far in 5,000 years of human history.[8] And assuming capitalism is not thwarted, life expectancy will likely rise to at least age 75 by 2050.[9] Capitalism clearly makes the Earth more and more habitable and friendly to human life, not less so.

It’s also no wonder that, under capitalism, human reason thrives in the form of economic planning. Capitalism, indeed, represents the opposite of chaos in that it is characterized by an immense amount of projection and preparation. For example, every day there are countless businesspeople who are planning to expand or contract their firms, who are planning to introduce new products or discontinue old ones, and who are planning to open new branches or close down existing ones. And every day there are countless workers planning to improve their skills, change their occupations or places of work, or to continue with things as they are. And every day there are countless consumers planning to buy homes, cars, stereos and how to use the goods they already have.[10]

From its rational foundation to the limitless and remarkable achievements, advances and economic planning that take place under it, capitalism is clearly the system of reason and for reason—and, therefore, the system that makes most of human life possible and worth living.

Nonwestern Culture and Capitalism 
Since nonwestern culture does not recognize rights and their foundation, it cannot achieve capitalism and its benefits. In nations where nonwestern culture dominates—where theocratic, communist, socialist, fascist and military dictatorships rule—individuals are not free to act upon their own rational judgment in the pursuit of their own self-interest. In other words, government controls and regulations over the economic and political lives of the citizens severely impede or destroy the workings of capitalism in these nations.

As a result, these nations are characterized by widespread poverty, manual labor, unsafe working conditions, filth, disease, helplessness before nature, child mortality and child labor. In other words, these nations are much like the pre-capitalism Europe described earlier, as they would logically have to resemble.

• • • •

Capitalism is based on the recognition of rights. It is in harmony with humanity’s rational nature. It lifts people out of foulness and into prosperity. It is inherently and profoundly benevolent. It makes most human survival and happiness possible. Capitalism is, in short, one of the most beautiful words that can be spoken.

Everyone on earth should fight for capitalism and the Western ideals and values that make it possible as if their lives depend on them—because, in fact, they do.

[1] George Reisman, Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics; “Chapter 1: Economics and Capitalism” (Ottawa, Ill, Jameson Books 1998.) p.19.
[2] Ibid, p. 19
[3] Ayn Rand, Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal; “What is Capitalism?” (New York, Signet, 1982) p.19.
[4] Jackson Spielvogel, Western Civilization, Fourth Edition, (Belmont, CA, Wadsworth 2000) p. 533.
[5] CIA World Factbook 2010
[6] George Reisman, Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics; “Chapter 1: Economics and Capitalism” (Ottawa, Ill, Jameson Books 1998.) p.28.
[7] Ayn Rand, Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal; “What is Capitalism?” (New York, Signet, 1982) p.19.

[8] Deirdre McCloskey, The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce, (University of Chicago Press,) p. 26.
[9] Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects
[10] George Reisman, Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics; “Chapter 8: The Dependence of the Division of Labor on Capitalism” (Ottawa, Ill, Jameson Books 1998.) p.269.

Rights, individual rights and their definition, violations, types and lists. American rights, natural rights, human rights, western culture and non western culture

Western culture recognizes rights.

This follows logically from Western culture’s embrace of reason, individualism andhappiness. This is because rights originate from humanity’s rational nature, belong only to individuals and make possible self-preservation and the enjoyment of life.

Rights Born with Us 
Reason, which is humanity’s primary means of survival, is an attribute of the individual. This fact demands that the individual be able to act on his or her reason and judgment and that it be considered wrong for others to forcibly stop him or her from doing so. In other words, human nature demands that the individual haverights.

Rights are principles defining and sanctioning an individual’s autonomy in a social context.[1] Rights, in other words, sanction freedom—which means freedom from physical force initiated by another or others, particularly by the government.[2] [3]

Since the source of rights is reality, specifically the requirements of survival for a rational being, rights are inalienable. They are absolutes incapable of being surrendered, transferred or revoked by another or others for any purpose.

Or as American statesman John Dickinson (1732-1808) explained: “Rights are not annexed to us by parchment and seals…They are born with us; exist with us; and cannot be taken from us by any human power without taking our lives.”[4]

One Fundamental Right 
All individuals everywhere possess one fundamental right: the right to life. This right has several branches, which are merely different aspects of it. These branches are the right to liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness.

 

  • The right to life is the right to protect, sustain and further one’s life; it is the right to take all of the action that one’s life requires as a rational being.
  • The right to liberty is the right to act in accordance with one’s judgment to attain one’s values.
  • The right to property is the right to sustain and benefit oneself by keeping, using and disposing of the material values that one has created or earned.
  • The right to the pursuit of happiness is the right to live for one’s own sake, fulfillment and enjoyment.

An individual possesses these rights absolutely as long as he or she respects the same rights in others.

From these basic rights there are many applications, including but not limited to freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom to petition and assemble, as well as the right to trial by jury and due process of law and protection against unreasonable searches and arrests.

Guardian of Rights 
The only function and purpose of a proper government is to protect the rights of the individual. Government is the agency that holds a monopoly on the lawful use of force in a given geographic area.[5] And a proper, fully Westernized government uses force, under impartially defined laws, only in response against those who initiate its use—that is, only against those who violate rights.

In other words, according to Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826): “No man has a natural right to commit aggression on the equal rights of another; and this is all from which the laws ought to restrain him.”[6]

A proper government derives its moral authority from “the consent of the governed.” This means that the power a proper government possesses has been delegated to it by the citizens for the purpose of protecting their rights. If a government does not protect the citizens’ rights, but violates them, then such a government has no moral authority or rational reason to exist.

The types of government that violate rights, as opposed to protecting them, include theocracy, communism, socialism, fascism, Nazism, absolute monarchy and simple dictatorship. These governments, by their nature, are truly at war against their own citizens. The citizens, consequently, have the right to defend themselves by overthrowing their government and creating a new, proper one.

Danger of Democracy 
A proper government is not a democracy. A democracy literally means unlimited majority rule or mob rule. A democracy allows the majority, by vote, to violate rights—the rights of individuals in the minority. In other words, a democracy holds that there is no right and wrong, and people can do whatever they please, given they have enough votes.

Or, in the words of American Founding Father James Madison (1751-1836): “Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; they have ever been found incompatible with personal security or…rights…”[7]

A proper government is, or should be referred to as, a rational republic. This is a system of government that is restricted to protecting rights, such as the system established by the United States Constitution. Majority rule in such a system applies only on a limited basis, such as in regard to the selection of government officials and representatives. In other words, a rational republic recognizes that rights are absolutes that are not subject to vote.

Dream Out of Reach 
Non-Western culture does not recognize rights. Governments of nations where non-Western culture dominates are disgustingly abusive and brutal toward their own citizens and often others. These governments act not as servants that protect rights, but as masters that violate them. This tyranny ultimately exists because non-Western culture fails to embrace the foundation of rights: reason, individualismand worldly happiness

Since non-Western culture devalues reason, it does not respect the requirements of survival for a being who survives by reason—that is, it does not respect rights. In addition, rights require that people deal with one another and settle disagreements through the use of reason, discussion and persuasion—not by physical force. But since reason is devalued in non-Western culture, physical force becomes the primary way to settle disputes, and rights seem impractical as a result.

Further, by not embracing reason, people in non-Western culture are often ignorant and helpless, lacking the knowledge required to produce the material goods that their lives require. This contributes to the fact that people in non-Western culture must often fight over a limited quantity of material goods, even food. Violating others rights, as a result, becomes a requirement for survival since they must cheat, steal, kill, etc. to survive. For example, competition for scarce resources is likely one of the causes of the violence in the Darfur region of western Sudan.

Non-Western culture’s rejection of individualism also prevents it from respecting rights. Virtually all emphasis and value in non-Western culture is placed on God or/and the group (such as the state, society, the class, the tribe). The individual, by contrast, is considered largely insignificant or even unreal. Consequently, according to this view, any and all sanction to independent action and freedom belongs, not to the individual, but to God or/and the group, specifically to those on earth who claim to represent them, such as a dictator.

Finally, non-Western culture’s general scorn for worldly happiness prevents it from respecting rights. Non-Western culture holds that the individual does not exist for his own sake and fulfillment, but only to serve God or/and the group. In other words, the individual is only a means to an end, not an end in himself. However, only a being who is an end in himself can claim a sanction to independent action and freedom. If the individual exists to serve God or/and the group, then he would have no rights, but only the duties of a servant.[8]

* * * *

The slave labor, speech and press restrictions, executions and imprisonment without trial, beatings, government expropriation of property and countless other rights violations, which are part of daily life in non-Western culture, will not go away—not until reason, individualism and worldly happiness are admired and pursued, at least implicitly.

Only when people in non-Western culture embrace these ideals and values will they start living the dream of having their rights recognized.

Happiness and its definition, philosophy, meaning, causes, keys and tips. Happiness and Western culture and non Western culture including Islam

Western culture holds that the attainment of one’s own worldly happiness should be the focus of each person’s life.

Put differently, Western culture holds that worldly happiness is, in the words of Aristotle, “the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing… the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence.”[1]

Happiness is a fundamental and lasting sense of joy and serenity that results from achieving personally meaningful and rational values. Happiness is an indication that one is living successfully, a life proper to a human being, while suffering (as a way of life) is a sign that one is not.[2]

Harmony of Happiness
To pursuit one’s own happiness is to pursue one’s own interests, one’s own success and one’s own well-being—as opposed to engaging in self-sacrifice and self-denial. Happiness, then, is selfish.

As a result of this fact, the seeking of one’s own happiness is often viewed as a threat to others since selfishness is traditionally associated with the sacrifice of others to oneself. This viewpoint has some validity in non-Western culture where, to a far-reaching extent, people cheat, steal, brutalize, enslave and kill others in an attempt to sustain or advance their own well-being.

The ideals and values of Western culture, however, encourage people to pursue and attain happiness in a way that is in harmony—not conflict—with others’ well-being and happiness. For example:

 

  • Reason allows people to deal with one another by discussion and persuasion, not force or fraud.
  • Individualism holds that each person can support one’s own life and achieve one’s own happiness by one’s own effort—not as a parasite, living at the expense of others.
  • Rights protect individuals from being forcibly sacrificed for the benefit of another or others.
  • Capitalism demonstrates that respecting rights is in the rational self-interests of all people.

Western culture, therefore, fosters a benevolent or rational selfishness, in which people neither sacrifice themselves to others—nor others to themselves.[3]

Saved from Dead End 
Western ideals and values, as we have seen, discourage traditional selfishness—that is, pursuing one’s own well-being at the expense of others. By doing so, the ideals and values, in effect, discourage a person from heading down a self-defeating path.

This is because a person virtually cannot attain his or her happiness or proper self-interest by lying, cheating, stealing, assaulting, enslaving, murdering or by engaging in any other heinous act traditionally associated with selfishness.

Such actions, by their nature, put the perpetrator in profound conflict with others and their well-being. As a result, even if a person acts selfish in the traditional sense only every so often, such a person will, at least to some degree, live an anxiety-ridden and dangerous life that teeters on disaster.

Liars, cheaters, thieves, murderers and the like must be intensely concerned with getting caught, spending time in jail and/or, perhaps more seriously, forever labeled untrustworthy and cast out as pariahs—losing at least some of the benefits of living in society as a result. And for many such individuals, a simple knock at the door, bump in the night or countless other normally non-threatening occurrences become terror since they may represent the police or, perhaps worse, their victims seeking revenge.

Slave owners, such as those in non-Western culture, also must live with fear. They must always be concerned with revolt, no matter how well their slaves are treated, and the gruesome things their slaves might do to them out of resentment.

And the more able a person is in sacrificing others to himself, such as in the case of a dictator, the more enemies he makes and the greater the hatred for him. It is no wonder that Hitler and Stalin, for example, both ended up paranoid psychotics given that they had made millions of mortal enemies.

Trying to attain happiness through traditional selfishness is clearly not practical. Any benefit gained is equaled or outweighed by the cost or risk involved, usually by a wide margin. And its impracticality is even more evident when viewed in light of the alternative.

Conflict Cleared 
The alternative is the ethical code of conduct that Western ideals and values encourage: rational selfishness. It demands that one deal with others through trade—through voluntary exchange for mutual benefit—not by force or fraud. Through trade, there are no sacrifices given or collected and no victims or victimizers. There are only victors since both parties gain.

As a result, trade virtually eliminates human conflict and leads to genuine goodwill, peace, decency, kindness and benevolence among rational people. Far from making enemies, a person often makes enthusiastic supporters and even friends among those with whom he or she trades because their lives are benefited from the exchange.[4]

Consequently, individuals of enduring success around the world, including the richest people, are essentially not thugs and swindlers, but traders. Bill Gates, for example, made virtually all of his fortune by dealing with others voluntarily for mutual benefit, not by victimizing people.

Only a person who is rationally selfish—that is, only a person who, at least implicitly, embraces Western ideals and values—is truly capable of achieving his or her happiness and self-interest.

Non-Western Culture and Happiness Incompatible
Non-Western culture sometimes, reluctantly, gives lip service to the importance of worldly happiness. The fact, however, that suffering is the normal state of life in non-Western culture proves that it does not take such happiness seriously.

Non-Western culture is incompatible with happiness because it holds that the individual must sacrifice his for the well-being of the group (such as the state, society, the class, the tribe). But since the group is, in fact, nothing more than a sum of individuals, its happiness or well-being cannot logically be achieved in this way. If all must sacrifice for all, only universal misery can be attained.

And non-Western culture does not take worldly happiness seriously because it often does not take this life seriously. Islamic culture, especially, regards this life on earth to be, not an end in itself, but merely a test for or precursor to a life after this one—a life that promises happiness. According to this view, the more a person denies his or her own worldly well-being, that is, the more he or she suffers in this life in the service of God, the more prepared and worthy he or she is to achieve happiness in the next life.

Fool’s Creed 

A major reason why non-Western culture tends to strongly emphasize happiness in the next life, as opposed to this one, stems from its devaluing of reason. To not emphasize reason is to not emphasize reality, facts and knowledge. For example, in addition to being mostly illiterate, many people of Arab and North African nations are ignorant of such basic facts as man’s landing on the moon.

“Knowledge is power,” said Francis Bacon, and it includes the power to be happy. The more one knows about the world, the more one is able to deal with it successfully and the less likely one is to be frustrated. Knowledge of grammar, math, logic, natural science, economics, history and philosophy—to name just a few areas—is enormously practical in helping one to live confidently, successfully and, therefore, happily. By contrast, without knowledge one is, by definition, ignorant and thus virtually powerless to achieve success and happiness.

Since they choose to devalue reason and, therefore, knowledge, it is no surprise that people in non-Western culture believe that this life on earth is hell on earth. As a result, they seek happiness where they believe it may exist for them: beyond this life. Consequently, death is their primary concern, not living life on earth. Or, as Osama bin Laden simply puts it, in speaking for at least a significant part of the Islamic world: “We love death.”[5]

This belief that one must die to find happiness is a Fool’s Creed. The ideals and values of Western culture, especially reason, make possible an unlimited potential for happiness in this life on this earth. In fact, one could say that Western culture and the joy it offers make death the departing of Paradise, not the entering of it.